Sure, eGPU would work fro Ubuntu VM.
just checked Settings->Display->Prefer External GPU for the VM.
now the VM will use eGPU.
Incorrect answer I'm afraid...
No, the eGPU must be supported by Apple. -> https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT208544
Currently only AMD GPUs are supported.
This implementation does not 'passthrough', our Metal rendering process instead runs on the faster hardware which delivers more performance for 3D hardware accelerated apps, regardless of guest OS type. (i.e. as long as VMware Tools and the SVGA II device are there, it should work)