As you will see from the KB posted above only the original Win10 build has supported WS12.
You could TRY the workarounds mentioned in the links from this thread: Statement for Workstation 15.0 and earlier being blocked by Microsoft KBs
As I see it your only other options are to avoid that Win10 update or to replace your old hardware.
It's been working fine with windows 10 1909 with no issues. I don't remember that windows 10 was blocking the update back then, I think there was just a recommendation to uninstall VmWare 12. I will try to uninstall VmWare, upgrade windows 10 and reinstall it afterwards.