I think that permission profile might be an option.
While profile creation, we can choose permission from the left pane and add application into the "Exceptions" section.
Then click "Configure" link of each apps.
From the "Configure Permissions" page, we can find a list of permission required by each apps.
We can set "record audio" to "Deny" if it exists on the list.
Note: We have to set the "record audio" to "Deny" on each application's "Configure Permissions" page.
Unfortunately I could not find any other settings to disable voice typing on an android device..