This same issue seems to have arisen for myself after having installed the latest VMWare Workstation update just yesterday (13/11/2019).
That is to say, in my case the update altered the Sound Card -> Device Status -> Connected setting by un-checking it under all Linux guests being one instance of each of Elementary OS, Ubuntu and Kali because I certainly did not make these changes.
The fix for the issue is:
Power on the Linux VM ->
Right click the VM name (either from Library listings or Tab) ->
Select "Settings" ->
Select "Sound Card" ->
Under "Device Status" ensure that "Connected" as well as "Connect at power on" are checked
Usually one does not make Settings changes on a running VM but in this case is solves the issue.
A video showing this same problem being dealt with in March of 2018 can be found at: No Sound in VMware Workstation Linux - YouTube
Hope this solves the issue for yourself or anyone else facing the same issue as it did for me.
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And now I sit here with my foot in my mouth ...
It seems that VMWare Workstation IS IN NO WAY TO BLAME for the issue (I am using V15.5.1 build-15018445).
The fix I have mentioned above is only temporary unfortunately and only sticks until Linux guest/s Reboot or Shutdown/Restart.
I have now managed to permanently fix the issue however after discovering that Sound Blaster Recon 3Di was missing components I.e., the control panel for said device would not display anything and gave me a missing components error ... I.e., the driver was corrupted.
Hence, I have reinstalled the Win 10 Version driver for this hardware and so far so good it seems.
Thanks it works. But it needs to do it each time when virtual machine powered on or rebooted