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Under the heading "Video/Graphics adapter requirements" it says that it requires "DirectX 11, feature level 10.1, Shader Model 4.1" with fallback to "OpenGL 3.3 with the ARB_viewport_array, EXT_texture_filter_anisotropic, and EXT_texture_compression_s3tc extensions."
VMware Fusion 11.0.0 does not support DirectX 11 (only 10.1), so the OpenGL fallback would be required (and the software apparently does that automatically). According to the release notes for VMware Fusion 10, OpenGL 3.3 is supported in Windows guests, but I don't know offhand whether ArcGIS Pro's required extensions are supported.
Given that ArcGIS Pro would have to use OpenGL, they recommend OpenGL 4.5 (not achievable in Fusion), also having the ARB_shader_draw_parameters and EXT_swap_control extensions (I don't know if they are supported) and 2 GB of dedicated graphics memory (you only gave it 1 GB).