Interesting question, I'm pretty sure the answer is No as I've been using Fusion since version 1.x and I've never seen it. Somehow I'm pretty active here too.
It was only ever supported on VMware Workstation, last version that I am aware about was Workstation 9.
If I'm not mistaken then Visual Studio 2013 no longer supported plugins.
re. "debugging outside the VM", that's basically "remote debugging" and that was never supported by the plugin AFAIK.
You can however remote debug a VM if you configure it for that. That's not the problem, but it is "system level" debugging and not "debug my application" which I think you are asking for.
Remote debugging is something you can setup in Visual Studio regardless if you are running in VMs or not.
for example see here: