From the other machine if you do an nslookup on the instant clone is the ip address listed the IP address that is given on the instant clone when you use ipconfig from the command line. I'm betting your issue is that DNS registration isn't happening properly.
I have verified that DNS is resolving correctly, that was one of my first thoughts. I even logged in and did an ipconfig /registerdns to make sure. The firewall service is disabled, I have gone as far as to log in and start the service on one of the effected VMs and make sure the firewall is actually disabled. I have provisioned the desktops into an OU that has no GPOs applied to it, no dice.
What is really strange, is it works perfectly on the parent image. Not only that, every once in a blue moon it will work. I went as far as to deploy a new vanilla Windows 7 image and had the same result, and this does not seem to effect Windows 10. I also can't pin anything out of the ordinary down in the event logs.
Have you tried accessing via \\IP instead of \\name? Any success?
I did test this in troubleshooting if it was a DNS issue. Same result.