I had the exact same problem.
Although I wasn't sure whether it was because I added two dvUplink ports or because I changed the names of the dvUplink ports. (I did both at the same time)
Now that I read your post, I tent to believe that this is a general issue with the renaming of dvUplink ports. It was impossible to connect to either one of the ESXi hosts. The entire vNetwork was down.
I ended up reinstalling the ESXi host because the environment had to be up and running again as quickly as possible. I'm not familiar with the console and didn't know what else to do. (One of the hosts is still down)
This also made me think about the potential "single point of failure" of the distributed switch. I'm not sure whether I will use a distributed switch again, once I got my vCenter up and running again.
Did you open a call at VMWare? Maybe this is a known bug?
I know this is an old thread, but we had the exact issue yesterday with 5.1 and brought down over 500 VMs. VMware support centered around recovering vCenter which we finally did, but overall we wasted some 7 hours. Support said a simple rename "should have worked" not much comfort at 3:00 am.